My research responds to a need to better understand, instruct, and assess students’ knowledge and the use of technology-enabled models for doing so. Science learning encompasses content knowledge and scientific reasoning skills. My first independent research projects revealed several important, and in some cases, unexpected findings with regard to students’ content knowledge and scientific practices when interacting with data in text, hands-on, and with computer simulations. This has generated important empirical and theoretical questions about where students’ science knowledge originates and how it subsequently develops.  Projects often center on the cognitive underpinnings of students’ learning, either from educational technologies (e.g., computer simulations) or as assessed with technological tools (e.g., computer-based, dynamic instruments or computer simulations).